We’ve built a tool to help generate in-text citations instantly. It’s available for our 6 most popular referencing styles. Referencing text in different types of content can get quite tricky, especially e-books. Below is our guide of must-haves for citing in each style.


APA 6 & 7

Provide the reader with the relevant information to identify the location of the passage. For books that have no page numbers, include either the section title or paragraph number, or a combination of the two.

Citing a paragraph number: -place the paragraph number – abbreviated to “para.” – after the date of publication.

  • E.g. (Prothero, 2019, para. 5)

Citing a section title: -place the section title – followed by the word “section” – after the date of publication.

  • E.g. (Prothero, 2019, From Dinosaurs to Birds section)

Citing texts with long titles: – e.g. “The Importance of Dinosaurs in Evolutionary Theory”: -abbreviate the heading and place it within quotation marks.

  • E.g. (Prothero, 2019, “The Importance of Dinosaurs” section, para. 4)



Harvard

Despite being one of the most commonly used referencing styles, there is no single or definitive version of Harvard style: its usage varies from institution to institution. It is therefore imperative to consult your own university or academic institution’s Harvard formatting guidelines before starting your project. You should always provide the reader with the relevant information to identify the location of the passage.

Citing from a book with no page numbers: -include either the section title or paragraph number, or a combination of the two.

  • E.g. (Prothero, 2019, para. 5) or (Prothero, 2019, From Dinosaurs to Birds section, para. 4)

Citing texts with long titles– e.g. “The Importance of Dinosaurs in Evolutionary Theory”: -abbreviate the heading and place it within quotation marks.

  • E.g. (Prothero, 2019, “The Importance of Dinosaurs” section, para. 4)


Chicago

Provide the reader with the relevant information to identify the location of the passage. For books with no page numbers, include the section title, chapter or paragraph number, or a combination of the three.

Citing books consulted online: -include a URL at the end of your reference. Remember to abbreviate chapter to “chap.” and paragraph to “para.”

  • Footnote e.g.

    Donald R. Prothero, The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries: Amazing Fossils and the People Who Found Them (New York: Columbia University Press, 2019), chap. 4, para. 2, https://ereader.perlego.com/1/book/773597/12.

  • Subsequent footnote e.g.

    Prothero, Story of the Dinosaurs, chap. 4, para. 2.



TURABIAN

Provide the reader with the relevant information to identify the location of the passage. For books that have no page numbers, include the section title, chapter or paragraph number, or a combination of the three.

Citing books consulted online: -remember to abbreviate chapter to “chap.” and paragraph to “para.”

  • E.g: (Prothero 2019, para. 5)

  • E.g. (Prothero 2019, chap. 4)


OSCOLA

Provide a reader with the relevant information to identify the location of the passage. For books that have no page numbers, include the section title, chapter or paragraph number, or a combination of the three.

Unlike most referencing styles, OSCOLA (The Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) does not require you to use any punctuation marks between chapter/paragraph and number.

Citing book consulted online: -abbreviate chapter to “ch” and paragraph to “para”, remembering to leave a space before the number.

  • E.g. Donald R Prothero, The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries: Amazing Fossils and the People Who Found Them (Columbia University Press 2019) ch 1, para 4.

Have a look at our related article on how to use in-text citations.

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